Let's start with the fundamental capabilities one might find in almost any program. To keep it simple, we focus first on how to read and write programs that work with numbers, such as this one which calculates the value of pi:

fn main() imm pi = calcpi(10) // Calculate pi using arc-sine fractional sequence. // 'nterms' is the number of fractional terms used to estimate pi // https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Approximations_of_%CF%80#Arcsine fn calcpi(mut nterms = 10) f64 return 0d if nterms <= 0 // Initialize working values mut result = 0.5d mut seed = 1d mut top = 1d mut bot = 1d mut twos = 2d mut term = 0d while --nterms // Calc a new fraction and add to result top *= seed bot *= seed + 1d twos *= 2d * 2d term = top / (bot * (seed + 2d) * twos) result += term seed += 2d result * 6d

Over the next few pages, the story will unfold in this way: We begin by introducing the primitive values: numbers and variables. Using these values and various operators, we can then form expressions that calculate new values. Multiple expressions and other statements can then be assembled which perform the work of a function. Within functions, we can use various block-based statements that control the order that statements are performed.

Let's get started!